Beauty is often defined as the pleasing visual aspect of objects which makes these objects pleasing to see. These objects include sunsets, landscapes, art and humans. Beauty, along with beauty, is perhaps the most important area of aesthetics, one of the main branches of modern philosophy. In fact, the word ‘beauty’ was first used by the philosopher Aristotle around 2500 BC. He claimed that beauty was a way of evaluating and classifying all of the beautiful things in the world.
Later philosophers like Immanuel Kant and Immanuel Schlemma developed different theories of beauty based on different aspects of human psychology. According to Kant, beauty is primarily a subjective quality, while Schlemma argued that it is an essential characteristic of human beings. Aesthetic beauty, according to both philosophers, involves the ability to recognize and appreciate beauty in different situations and in different people. However, they have opposite views on beauty. According to Kant, beauty is a subjective and therefore subjective; while Schlemma defines beauty as an objective quality.
According to Kant, there are three basic principles of beauty. According to him (section of the Introduction to the Metaphysical Philosophy), beauty consists in so doing something pleasing to the aesthetic experience of the beholder, which may not be the same for all. Secondly, beauty is a natural quality, while according to Schlemma it is an altered or corrupted quality. The third principle, however, does not mean that the others are not important.
According to Kant, beauty consists in so doing something beautiful to the eye, which may not be the same for all. It also involves the capacity to constitute the whole, which is not the same for all. Beauty, according to Kant, is essentially a subjective ideal, thus dependent on the capacity of the human mind to define and appreciate beauty. According to Schlemma, beauty is primarily an essential characteristic of a human nature, while according to Korsch, it is a personal relation, which depends on the personal valuation of a person.
Beauty according to Kant is a purely subjective ideal, while according to Schlemma, beauty is an objective and independent quality. Beauty, according to Korsch, is a quality of a certain mental state, which can be described and experienced by the individual. For example, when a bride wears a white silk dress, she has certain representations in her mind, which cannot be described with words. Thus, the beholder will consider the dress to be beauty, even though she herself does not think so.
According to metaphysicians such as Descartes, beauty lies primarily in the senses. He says that we cannot know beauty unless we see it and hear it, which only an object can do. In his early writings, however, he makes it clear that beauty is not something subjective, but that it is something objective and fully integrated in mind. According to him, when we say that a thing is beautiful, it means that it causes our sensations to increase in intensity, so that we are able to experience a stronger and more complete pleasure.